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Assesment and Evalution

The Policy And Strategies For Implementation

The Policy And Strategies For Implementation

Reforms in examinations have been a subject of serious discussion for long. Some changes have been introduced in the system at the initiative of the NCERT in school examinations and the UGC in university examinations. on the whole, however, the impact of these reforms have not been too significant.

The policy visualises integration of the assessment of performance with the process of learning and teaching, and utilising the process of evaluation to bring about qualitative improvement in education (pars. 8.23). In order to ensure that the method of assessment of students' performance is valid and reliable, the following short-term measures are proposed:-

(a) At the School Level:

(i) Public examinations will continue to be held only at the levels of classes X and XII;

(ii) Decentralisation of the operation involved in the conduct of examinations to make the system work more effective.

(iii) School Boards in certain States have set up a number of sub-centres to decentralise the conduct of examinations. Adoption of similar measures by other State will be pursued.

(iv) In the event of decentralisation as indicated above, the State Boards of School Education would continue to get the question papers set and printed, consolidate the results of examinations and also undertake test checks on random basis of the functioning of the subcentres; and

(v) Spot evaluation of answer scripts.

(b) At the University Level:

(i) Continuous institutional evaluation will be introduced at the postgraduate level, to begin with, in Unitary Universities, Deemed Universities and Autonomous Colleges;

(ii) Students' performance will be indicated through letter grades, and assessment of overall performance will be on the basis of cumulative grade point average;

(iii) Provision will be made for improvement of performances through subsequent appearances without involving any disadvantage to the candidates;

(iv) External examinations will continue to be held by universities which have a large number of affiliated colleges and efforts will be made to improve the conduct of examinations through effective decentralisation as indicated for school level examinations;

(v) Modifications in the qualifying recruitments for admissions in the universities and colleges will be examined to accelerate the process of change in the school level examinations.

(c) Conduct of Examinations:

(i) The possibility of introducing legislation to define various malpractices connected with examinations and to treat them as cognizable and unbailable offences will be considered;

(ii) Such laws will also, when enacted, make provision to prescribe the nature and type- of punishments for various offences under the law, and to include within its scope persons engaged in various operations connected with examinations and also to provide protection to them; and

(iii) Innovations and experiments in the conduct-of examinations, like printing and distribution of question papers with questions arranged in different sequences to avoid copying and other unfair means in the examination halls.

3. In order to attain the objective of integrating the process of evaluation with teaching and learning, 'several long-term reforms will be necessary. For this purpose, the following programmes would be considered :-

(a) At the School Level:

(i) The Boards of Education will lay down the levels of attainment expected at classes V, VIII, X and XII;

(ii) The Boards will also prescribe the learning objectives corresponding to these levels of attainment in terms of knowledge and comprehension, communication, skills in the application of knowledge, and the ability to learn;

(iii) Schemes of evaluation consisting of examinations to test those aspects of learning which can be assessed through formal examinations, and the procedure for assessing those aspects which cannot be tested through such an examination, will be developed. Abilities and proficiencies which can and should be assessed through institutional evaluation will be identified and procedures evolved for such evaluation;

(iv) The development of schemes of evaluation is a continuing process. To provide professional support to this process, the Boards of Education will consider setting up a Consortium for initiating research and development in evaluation procedures and in the conduct of examinations;

(v) For performing this task, the Consortium will adopt selected schools as pilot centres and will hold examinations and award certificates for the students of such schools;

(vi) Before question papers are set, a detailed design will be evolved indicating the weightage to be given to various areas of content, types of questions and the objectives of teaching/learning;

(vii) Along with external examinations, continuous institutional evaluation of scholastic and non- scholastic aspects of education will be introduced;

(viii) Evaluation of students' performance will move towards cumulative grading system;

(ix) In the big States, the possibility of establishing more than one Board of Education will be considered, so that the number of students to be examined by one Board does not exceed one lakh; and

(x) Procedures will be developed for the appointment of Chairmen/Secretaries of Boards of Education and Controllers of Examinations to inspire confidence among public.

(b) At the University Level-

(i) The possibility of developing alternate system of evaluation in place of external examinations for affiliated colleges will be explored;

(ii) The question of some universities functioning only as examining bodies for a number of colleges will be examined;

(iii) Academic reforms visualised in the policy like flexibility in the combination of courses, modular structure, provision for accumulation of credits, redesigning of courses, etc. will lead to considerable decentralisation in the evaluation process. Detailed schemes will be evolved to facilitate transition to new evaluation procedures concurrently with the changes in the content and structure; and

(iv) An agency will be developed either as part of the AIU, or independently, for continuous research and development in evaluation procedure.

(c) General:

(i) Integrity of the examiner is crucial to the credibility of the examination system.

This credibility can be established by the openness of the examinations. It has to be recognised that students have the inalienable right to scrutinise their answer scripts and its evaluation and also compare them with those of others:

(ii) The practice of declaring results in terms of overall divisions and pass/fail maybe reviewed and substituted by a system of declaration of results in terms of marks/grades in each subject separately;

(iii) Candidates should have the opportunity to improve upon their grades through subsequent attempts;

(iv) Provisions should be made for clearing examinations in parts, in conformity with the modular pattern of courses;

(v) The practice of scaling marks of different subjects which are not at par may be adopted in determining the grades;

(vi) Intensive training programmes will be organised for paper setters;

(vii) Question banks will be developed to assist paper setters;

(viii) A detailed marking scheme will be developed to ensure objectivity in scoring answer scripts;

(ix) Innovative ideas like open book examination, diagnostic evaluation etc. may be experimented with;

(x) Separate certificates will be awarded showing the results of institutional evaluation and external examinations;

(xi) The certificate of institutional evaluation may cover academic achievements as well as non- scholastic aspects.

(xii) Attempts wilt be made to move towards a situation in which only those who teach will evaluate their students;

(xiii) Integration of evaluation with the process of teaching and 'Learning will help diagnose the weaknesses and deficiencies in education. This diagnostic aspect will be utilised to develop remedial programme for weaker sections.

(xiv) Facilities will be provided in schools and colleges for maintenance of students' records to facilitate continous institutional evaluation; and

(xv) Programmes of training and orientation of teachers will give special attention to new evaluation methodologies, setting of question papers, measurement of performances, etc.

(d) National Testing Service

A National Testing Service will be establised and developed as a quality control mechanism to organise nation-wide tests on a voluntary basis so that norms can be evolved for comparability of performance and also for conducting independent tests.

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