**Lesson Plan; Preparation & Transaction**

**Getting Started**

Before designing a lesson plan it is desirable that a draft pre-plan is produced. A sketch of your ideas or perhaps a flow chart of procedures and/or set problems with important questions to be asked should be drafted.

**Your Pre plan or brief**

Elements to be considered in the pre-plan are as follows:

A statement of competence's) to be achieved by students, i.e., the lesson objective(s). Write these down.

Check the syllabus or scheme of work for accuracy of intention and scope of coverage

Before any lesson may be effectively planned, it is essential that the teacher states what he and she assumes to be the students' knowledge and understanding at the outset in relation to the lesson purpose. For example, in a lesson dealing with the application Pythagorean' Theorem, a teacher might assume that they already know what is meant by the following: horizontal, perpendicular, angle, right angle, square and square root, substitution. This is the 'known' from which the teacher leads the class to the 'unknown'. It is essential that this 'known' __be checked__ by the teacher at the start of the actual lesson by questioning students.

If it is apparent from feedback that students do not possess this assumed knowledge, then before the designed lesson can proceed, it must be re-taught and consolidated. (Revision techniques).

__Learning steps of the lesson__

In a brief the learning steps should be listed i.e., enabling competencies or enabling objectives which must be achieved in order that the lesson purpose may be attained by __all __students.

__Application and relevance__

Under this heading the teacher must include a range of examples and problems which reveal the practical relevance of the lesson purpose. This is an important element in the motivation of students.

__New words/Key terms__

If words to be introduced are likely to be unfamiliar to students, they must be listed here. Their meaning should be explained to students in the early stages of the introduction to the lesson.

__New concepts__

New conceptsmust **also be **listed so that their meaning and relevance are included in the development ofthe lesson.

__Teaching material and aids to be used__

__ __Teaching material and aids that might be used should be listed so that their preparation and use may be planned. They should be selected because they will give to the lesson impact, interest, memorability, and help clarify meaning and promote understanding.

__Learning activities__

A list of possible learning activities should be compiled so that they maybe considered for inclusion in the lesson plan.

__Self preparation__

At the pre-planning stage, the teacher must ensure that his/her knowledge of the subject matter to be taught is more than adequate and that he can explain and inform in a way that is suitable to the abilities and backgrounds of the students.

**HERE IS AN EXAMPLE OF A PRELIMINARY DRAFT LESSON SKETCH**

__Setting the Lesson Objective__

*Use the Pythagorean' Theorem to calculate the length of a side of a right-angled triangle given the lengths of the other two sides in 40 minutes.*

**Assumed student knowledge and understanding **

*Horizontal, perpendicular, angle, right-angle, square and square root,* *equation, use ***of **formulae, triangle.

__Steps/Tasks__** (enabling objectives)**

**HOW** __The __*student ***should be able to**

1. **Identify** a right-angled triangle (could draw, find, calculate etc.).

**2.** **Apply **standard notation to any triangle.

3. **State** Pythagoras's Theorem as an equation.

**4.** **Apply **Pythagoras's Theorem to calculate the unknown length **of **the hypotenuse **of **a right-angled triangle.

**5.** **Apply **Pythagoras's Theorem to determine the length of an unknown side **of **a right-angled triangle.

Notes on Motivation/ interest (How to involve students) Group work with paper squares, suggest a problem of trying to cross a river by felling a tree, finding the height of a building, dividing corn fields up for planting etc.

**Application and relevance;**

1. Checking for a square.

2. Making a right angle.

3. Two sides to make a direct line.

**Problems to be solved:**

Could become the theme of the lesson. (Interest, imagination and certainly lots of initiative here could be applied in a host of ways:-

Dressmaking

Woodwork

Building construction

Production engineering

Pipe layout

__New words for consideration and development__

Hypotenuse

Cube

__Possible learning activities / approaches__

Teacher centred

Student group work

Field work

Individual students' work

Discussion teacher/students models

**TOTAL TIME FOR SESSION - depending on approach, say one hour **

**DESIGNING YOUR ACTUAL LESSON PLAN **

The actual lesson plan used by teachers may be presented in many different kinds of formats and styles. Develop your own style sheet or plan structure. Whatever the format of your plan, it must have a clear structure. This structure is the same as that which should be used for a lecture, discussion, essay, project and dissertation. Namely one would look for an introduction, the development and a conclusion. The following essential elements should be included in each of these important development stages in your plan whether outline in scope or comprehensive in detail.

**The Introduction** **Scope of the lesson**

By this is meant the topic for consideration, what the lesson is about, **e.g. **'our lesson today is concerned with safety in the home', or 'today we are going to consider teaching styles'. Be clear on what you will cover and make sure that it is not too much. Beginners cover far too much material in their first lesson designs. Do time your lesson script. Give a time value to each element.

**Application and relevance**

Unless students see the relevance of the lesson and the learning objectives that they are going to attempt then there is little chance that the lesson will be successful. Ways of making the lesson relevant are without limit. The indication of relevance is an essential component in the introduction of every effective lesson. Remember the four I's!!

**Check on assumed previous knowledge of students**

This assumed previous knowledge must be checked at the outset.

**New words and terms**

It is important that words and terms likely to be unfamiliar to students are introduced at relevant stages during the lesson. Do not introduce terms without explanation and relevance to the work in hand. Too many teachers spend their time explaining things which were introduced out of context! Do not teach by definitions and baffle students psychologically by flagging up issues that deter them from thinking and participating.

**Lesson purpose or aim**

The introduction should include a clear and unambiguous statement and explanation of the lesson purpose (teaching objective) and the learning objectives to be achieved by the students.

**Tasks, steps and or objectives to achieved by the student to satisfy the purpose of the lesson**

These steps are the enabling objectives, the achievement of which will ensure that students achieve the lesson purpose. The introduction to the lesson must emphasize and explain the significance of these steps.

**Development**

The development of the lesson is the period during which experiences are provided for students. Each step or enabling objective to be achieved by each student should be sequenced in order to achieve the best results. Remember we learn by practice, association and in small steps. This is where the HOW of learning is addressed. As a teacher you also need to recreate your own learning and understanding of the subject that you teach. You will probably realize that you know very little about the topic you have to teach as you begin to teach it! At least initially.

The attainment of each objective or enabling competency, must be recapped upon and confirmed before the lesson proceeds to the attainment, by students, of the next enabling objective.

**Conclusion**

The conclusion of the lesson must indicate to students that the purpose of the lesson has been achieved. What has been achieved must be summarized and consolidated at this point in the structure of the session. For this, there is no better way than for students to apply these newly acquired skills and learning to a practical situation or problem. This will exemplify the relevance and importance of the newly acquired learning objectives.

It is not suggested that the above sequence should be followed in rigid sequence. What is important is that all of the elements should be included. The effective teacher does not adopt this sequence but adapts it to suit the needs of his or her students.

QUESTIONING in all its forms, should take place continuously in a lesson. It is the basis for allowing and facilitating effective learning. Poor questioning skills = poor teachers and performers.

**Important reminders**

When planning a lesson do not take for granted that all your students: